Action Research Outline

Topic for research: Flipped classroom, station rotation, and student’s math growth

Purpose: To see what the effect of a flipped classroom with station will have on students’ math growth.  Will it give more time for teachers to spend with students in a smaller group setting and/or individual time?  Will students be more successful in this type of setting?  Will student learn from having a station where they are able to perform e-learning?

Action Research Question: What is the effect of a flipped classroom with station rotation on the student’s’ growth in math class?

Qualitative, Quantitative or Mixed: My research will consist of mixed-methods.  

Data to be collected:  I will be looking at students’ grades, district assessments, and STAAR performance which is numerical data (quantitative) and I will also be asking students how they see their own growth by surveying them.

Type of measurement instruments to be used: Surveys, informal assessments, grades, district assessments, and STAAR performance.

The focus of literature review: With the type of research I am conducting, I will need different literature for my paper.  Technology is a broad topic so I will need multiple subtopics to better perform my research.  Since I am asking students to view videos at home instead of learning a skill in school in a flipped classroom environment, I will need resources similar to Clark’s (2010) research on flipped classroom.  So that would be one of my subtopics: Flipped Classroom.  Another subtopic that I will go over would be, Online Tutorials.  Under this subtopic, I will have resources such as Sargent, Borthick & Lederberg’s  (2011) and Mariano’s (2014) paper.  Resources like these will help support my research.  Lastly, my other subtopic will be, Integrating Technology.  I will need resources just for integrating technology in the classroom.  I will also need to find literature on individualized learning, e-learning, such as using a program like Think Through Math, and on small group instruction.



Bolliger, D. U., & Supanakorn, S. (2011). Learning styles and student perceptions of the use of interactive online tutorials. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 42(3), 470-481. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01037.x

Clark, K. (2015). The effects of the flipped model of instruction on student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom. Journal of Educators Online, 12, 91-115. Retrieved from classrooms&pr=on&ft=on&id=EJ1051042

Edwards, S., & Bone, J. (2012). Integrating peer assisted learning and eLearning: Using innovative pedagogies to support learning and teaching in higher education settings. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(5), 1-13. Retrieved from students and tutorials&pr=on&ft=on&id=EJ982405

Mariano, G. (2014). Breaking it down: Knowledge transfer in a multimedia learning environment. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 26(1), 1-11. Retrieved from

Sargent, C.S., Borthick, A. F., & Lederberg, A. R. (2011). Improving retention for principles of accounting students: Ultra-short online tutorials for motivating effort and improving performance. Issues In Accounting Edication. 26(4),657-679. doi: 10.2308/iace-5001

What I Learned


In a classroom, there is a lot of diversity.  Not just in student’s learning styles, but also in their home situation and level of learning.  In today’s classrooms, students receive the same instruction, at the same time, and at the same level.  There is no differentiation in the instruction.  I saw this in my own instruction.  I would try to have differentiation when my students would come to me for small group, but that did not give me enough time to work with my students.  So I researched extensively until I came upon blended learning, and the flipped classroom and station rotation models were the ones that stuck out to me the most.  These two models will provide my students a more personalized instruction by getting more teacher time with me.  Station rotation also provides the benefit where they can take ownership in their learning.


Trying to change the learning environment is not easy.  There are many hurdles that you have to jump over. Such as:

  • Support
    • Administration
    • Implementation
    • Moral
  • Student setbacks- students not watching the instructional videos at home or do not have opportunities to watch the instructional videos
  • Parent Involvement


I have spent time thinking about how I can make sure the hurdles above are not a hindrance in the implementation.  Through my research, I have found when teachers a properly trained and have a support system, they are more successful.  It is necessary for a teacher to receive continuous training on the subject.    Training does not end at the beginning of the year, it goes into the year through the end of the year and continues into the summer to get ready for the upcoming year.  Having a support system, where people are going through the same joys and struggles makes the implementation better.  A support group is necessary where teachers can go to talk to one another and collaborate with another by creating lessons/videos together.  Throughout my research, I was unable to find information on making sure that parents are also supportive of this new initiative.  Even though there are no references on this, it is important to make sure that parents are aware of how the flipped classroom and station rotation works.  A fellow colleague stated that a parent’s perspective is very important.  They may perceive this innovation as teachers being lazy and not wanting to teach students, however, that is not the perception we want parents to have.   So, it is vital for them to know how it works and why it is beneficial to students.  I propose to have constant communication with parents before school starts and throughout the year.  The other hurdle I noticed was about the instructional video and making sure students are able to watch them.  There is an easy solution to this.  Set a system where students are able to watch the videos at home, be at the beginning of the school day, after school, or during the school day (during specials, such as music, art, library, etc.). This is easily accomplished because the instructional videos are not going to be longer than five minutes.  These are the solutions that I will implement to overcome the expected hurdles.


With my innovation plan and professional development timeline, I hope to get administrators, students and parents on board and ready for this change.  I have done extensive research through a literature review and other academic works, to figure out how I could make sure I have solutions to the hurdles I have encountered.  Implementing a flipped classroom with station rotation, will not only benefit students, but it will also benefit the district.


What Works, What Doesn’t Work

There are many different ways to teach students that at times we do not know what would be best for them.  As teachers, we try to make the best decisions for our students that at times we may choose the wrong teaching method and that is part of teaching.  We are not able to make great changes if we do not try new innovated strategies. I am here to let you know that I have found that method.  The flipped classroom and station rotation will be able to get students the best instruction possible.  They will be able to have instructional videos at their disposal anytime and anyplace.  Within the classroom they will be able to use that newfound technology to further their learning and collaborate with others to learn.  The following video will inform you on how to get this plan to work.




It is safe to say most people want to be a leader in their professional community.  We read all different types of books about what makes a great leader.  One of the key characteristics  that make up a good leader is to  be able to work in different types of situations.  Another characteristic most books agree on is to be able  to hold conversations with our colleagues and work out issues or share ideas in a safe environment.  Although these are great tips to keep in mind, they do not go into detail as to how to make those conversations.  In order for us to be a great leader and make a change in our professional community, we must be able to have meaningful, honest conversations with our colleagues.  Throughout my process of learning how to become a great leader, my graduate professor, asked us to read Crucial Conversations: tools for talking when stakes are high.  


Change is a big step for everyone.  Not only will my colleagues be wary of change, but parents and students as well.  It will be vital for me to be able to communicate the heart, the why, I want there to be a change in our classrooms.  Having those conversations where everyone can be honest about what this innovation plan, flipped classroom with station rotation, will entail is the first step.  This is vital change in instruction, that will make the classroom more catered to the individual student.  Having a flipped classroom with station rotation will an environment where students will become self-learners and where students will take ownership of the learning


After we are all on the same page and  focused on what the reason behind the innovation plan, I will need to be able to share what the vital behaviors and use the 6 sources of influence to make sure that they know what this innovation plan is not going to be.  The real skills that are being taught in Crucial Conversations is going to come useful with the 4DX (4 Disciplines of Execution) Strategy/Plan.  When I introduce the 4DX, I will be on the lookout for  cues when conversations may turn for the worse.  I want to make a safe comfortable environment where students can feel safe voicing their opinions.  We are all familiar with this where we are afraid to say what is on our mind so we do not come across as not willing to participate change.  I do not want my colleagues to feel that way.  In order for to have a successful change, teachers, students, parents need to be able to have meaningful conversations.  We all need to be able to explore our thoughts and voice them.  They will also be able to contribute to the implementation of the innovation plan.  
Anyone can be a leader, but to be a great leader takes someone who is able to take a crucial conversation and be able to put everyone be at ease.  A great leader is able to make sure everyone’s voices are heard and make them feel like a crucial aspect in the innovation plan.  I plan on shaping my conversations to include everyone and listen to their opinions to become the great leader necessary to make the innovation plan a success.



Grenny, J., Patterson, K., Maxfield, D., McMillan, R., & Switzler, A. (2013). Influencer: The

         new science of leading change: 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

McChesney, C., Covey, S., & Huling, J. (2012). The 4 disciplines of execution: Achievingyour

         wildly important goals. New York, NY: Free Press.

Patterson, K.,  Grenny, J.,  McMillan, R. & Switzler, A. (2012). Crucial conversations: Tools

         for talking when stakes are high, second edition. McGraw-Hill.

4DX Strategy for Change

When I started thinking about making a change in my classroom, I never considered making a change with my colleagues as well.  I always wanted to be a digital learning leader, but I initially thought about making the change myself and then getting my colleagues to join me in my innovation plan.  I thought about doing it first because I have not encountered any other teachers in my district who have implemented a flipped classroom.  So before I use the 6 Sources of Influence and the 4DX (4 Disciplines of Execution) Strategy, I will implement my innovation plan in my classroom first, then in the second year I will use the Influencer Model and 4DX to get my colleagues on board.


Making any type of change always comes with challenges especially if it is an introduction of an entirely new concept.  In the education field, teachers are asked to make changes constantly, but they are not given examples of how the change should be implemented.  Teachers are given the why and examples, but that can only do so much.  Teachers are never given the how to or the chance to experience how to implement the change. The Influencer model and the 4DX go hand in hand.  When I complete the first year of my implementation, I will be able to use the Influencer model as the hook for my colleagues.  They will be able to understand the importance, the “Why,”, it is vital to create flipped classrooms with station rotations.  After getting them interested, I will be able to use the 4DX Strategy.  The 4DX Strategy is where the implementation takes place.  The 4DX is where the goal, WIG (Wildly Important Goal), what measures need to be taken, how it is going to be shown, and accountability is specified.  


I have created a 4DX strategy plan along with the stages of change that I will use to implement the flipped classroom with station rotation among my colleagues.


Stages of Change

Stage 1: Getting Clear

Stage 1 requires me to  meet with the teachers who are going to implement the flipped classroom with station rotation.  We will discuss what the 4DX strategy is and discuss if  any changes need to be made.  We will decide what day would be best for our weekly meetings.  I’d also like to establish  that we must all be held accountable and hold each other accountable.


Stage 2: Launch

This is where we are going to kick off the innovation plan.  We will hold a meeting to make sure everyone is on the same page, and  everyone has what they need to start.  I plan on reassuring  my colleagues  that I will be there if they need any help.  I will let them know that we are here to support each other and help each other when needed.


Stage 3: Adoption

This is where we will start seeing what our sweat and tears are being poured into.  I must make sure to refer back to the influencer model, so teachers can remember the reason we are creating flipped classroom with station rotation classrooms.  At this point, teachers will begin seeing that the adoption of the 4DX is having a great impact with student’s growth and how they are having more time to have more individualized teaching.


Stage 4: Optimization

This stage is where we see if there needs to be any changes in our 4DX strategy. Teachers will become more active participants and encourage others to create flipped classrooms with station rotations.  Teachers are having a much easier time collaborating with one another and letting teachers go into their classrooms to observe how they are implementing the flipped classroom with station rotations. Ideally, teachers will actively pursue and attend professional developments.


Stage 5: Habits

At the end of this process of having a flipped classroom with station rotation,  it will become second nature to the teachers.  The big WIG will be accomplished because the rest of the faculty would have seen the impact of the flipped classroom with station rotation had on teachers and students.



Flipped Classroom with Station Rotation Influencer

In the education world we are always looking to find the new innovative way to change out student’s educational world.  We try to make sure that teachers are up to date with the new strategies.  Over time, technology has become a big part of the innovative change, but in schools they are still behind.  Many teachers and administrators fear technology in the classroom.  Some view it as a waste of time.  They are stuck with their view of having lecture instruction as the only way for students to pass the state assessment (STAAR).  When it was time to make a change in my classroom and school, my mind went directly to technology.  Technology is a great tool to help students grow into independent learners and innovators.  Knowing that there was going to be a lot of resistance from my fellow colleagues, I had to come up with a way to influence them to take a leap and follow in my innovation plan.


After reading the book, Influencer: The New Science of Leading Change, I was able to come up with vital behaviors and 6 Source of Influence to ensure that my fellow colleagues will take a leap and become innovators alongside of me.



6 Sources of Influence




Grenny, J., Patterson, K., Maxfield, D., McMillan, R., & Switzler, A. (2013). Influencer:

The new science of leading change: 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Why make a change?

Why? Why do I want there to be a change in my classroom?  Why do I want to have others change their classrooms alongside of me?  For the past couple of years I have been wanting to change the way my students learn in my classroom.  I realized they were not getting enough instructional time with me and not enough time to explore the skills on their own. They were not able to continue their learning without having someone to guide them.  I would teach them the skill give them a some time in the classroom and then send them home with homework.  Most of my students would come back with their homework incomplete.  Their parents and my students would tell me that they did not understand and could not complete the homework.  So the next day and during my small group instruction I would go back and review.  Only this did not give me enough time to help my students master the skill.  It would put us behind on our scope and sequence.  It would also not help my high achieving students grow either.  This is when I realized that something had to change.

As I was exploring methods to change my classroom, I came upon the flipped classroom.  The concept is that students would watch an instructional video at home, answer some questions, and the next day students will work more on the skill while having the teacher there as a guide.  I immediately knew this was the change that I have been looking for and I had to implement this  in my classroom.  This would help all my students, from the lowest to the highest level.  This would give me more time to work with my students and make sure they are growing.

Ever since I have learned that there needed to be a change and what change needed to be done, I have been trying to find a way to do it.  The urgency for me to be able to fully make this change has been years in development.  For the past two years I have been trying to implement this change, but have had some roadblocks. I need to make sure that my students and their parents are on board, because without them this change will not work.  This upcoming year I need to make sure that I get my students and parents get on board.  I will need to make sure that they are aware of the why and the importance this change has on them in the long run.


Learning Environment, Design and Purpose


We always talk about the reasons why our students are not performing to the state’s standards.  Why they are not challenging themselves? Why do they just give up without trying?  There are so many other questions we always have about them, but we never stop to think about the real reasons.  We need to start to think more about the student than the grade or percentage on a test.  In order for our students to be successful we need to make sure that they are going into a learning environment where they are free to explore without any judgement.  They need to go into an environment where they are aware of the purpose of their learning.  


In my graduate course on creating significant learning environments, I had to think about what type of learning environment I wanted my students to have.  I need to create a significant learning environment that promotes a growth mindset.  In creating a significant learning environment, I talked about the different challenges I will encounter and how I will handle them.  It is important  for my students to feel comfortable in the classroom and  to be able to come in the classroom with the freedom to ask questions without feeling like they are not smart because they need to ask for help.  I want them to be able to leave the classroom with a feeling of wanting to  go online to learn more.


In the process of figuring out  what I need to do in order to create a significant learning environment, I had to think about my own learning philosophy. Figuring out what my learning philosophy was, will allow me to better help my students.  Learning about all the different learning theories will help me figure out how to help my students learn about their learning.  Once my students and I figure out the way they learn, we will work together as a team and be able to change their mindset from fixed to growth.


In the process of creating a significant learning environment and promoting a growth mindset, I still have to design how I want to implement my innovation plan.  In my graduate course I was introduced to a new taxonomy, Fink’s 3 column table and re-introduced to UbD Design, backwards design. I understand both of these as forms as lesson plans.  The Fink’s 3 column table was the hardest plan I have encountered.  It is setup to have the ‘endgame’ in mind.  What I want my students to have learned at the end of the year.  This will help me be able to really create activities that will truly help my students learn.  The UbD design is geared more for the of the weekly lesson plan.  It is more detailed and more student centered.  Both lesson plans will help me organize my innovation plan so I can share them with my administrators and fellow colleagues.   Having these lesson plans will make sure that I am providing my students the best learning environment for growth.


Finishing this graduate course on learning environment opened my eyes and made me realize that there is still so much more work to be done.  Figuring out what my learning philosophy will help me be a better teacher to my students.  I will be able to relate to those students who learn the same way I do and help them begin to think about learning a new way.  To think that learning is an ongoing process and that there is not one way of learning, there are multiple ways.  Learning about the different learning theories so I can help my students be better learners.  Creating a significant learning environment and promoting a growth mindset will be an ongoing process.  With a growth mindset, every obstacle, every setback is a learning opportunity that we need to embrace.  Our learning is neverending.



Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House.

Growth Mindset

This whole notion of having a growth mindset is very strange from the beginning.  As I read the book, Mindset: The new psychology of success by Carol Dweck, I thought to myself that I fit this description perfectly since I do have a some fixed mindset tendencies.  However, as I continued to read  growth mindset I would think to myself that I think like that as well.  So is it possible for me to have a mixture of both? Some would say no, and that I would either need to be one or the other.  Well, I disagree, and I do fall into both categories.  If I know where my fixed mindset comes to light, I can then talk to myself and get on track with the growth mindset.  I can tell myself that I am not failing, and I am still learning and I will continue to learn.

Intelligence is not something you are born with.  Intelligence is a skill that you continue to work on.  To have a growth mindset is to not let failures stop you, and to overcome any fear you may have.  It is a learning journey where you are not afraid to explore.  Children are more open-minded when it comes to learn play.  It is not until they go to school where they may start to doubt themselves or  become scared of trying, or  exploring.   They start to think of themselves as either being a failure or successful.   We need to start making sure our children do not think this way, so they can continue to explore and be risk takers.  

Importance of Growth Mindset

Adults and children need to have a  growth mindset so we are not stuck in the unknown.  Usually, we do not continue our learning because we are either afraid of failure or because we think that we know it all.  If you do not continue trying you will never know if you can succeed or if there is something more out there for you to learn.  If we are afraid of failure than we are not learning.  Think back when you were a child and you wanted to climb all the way from one side of the monkey bars to the other.  Did you stop trying because you fell or did you continue to get back on until you were able to do it?  You continue to get back on the monkey bars until you did it.  How did you feel afterwards? You probably felt great.  You learned how to swing across the monkey bars and never gave up.  We need to make sure our children and us, adults, never give up.  The growth mindset is to never give up.  

Be a “Yet” Learner and Growth Mindset

In my classroom it is important for my students to learn that just because you may not understand a skill the first time, means that you did not understand it, yet.  To be able to have this mindset in the classroom, is important to incorporate it in the culture of the classroom.  The same way we teach our students the classroom procedures, how to give positive critical feedback, how to disagree with one another, is the same way we need to teach them how to be a “yet” learner.  It is important to give them opportunities where they are going to fail and have them believe in themselves to continue.  They may not get the skill the first time or second, but as they keep trying they will learn it.  Students need to be exposed to situations where they will be tested with this mindset.  The change of mindset will not be a quick change, from one day to to the next, but it will take some some time  Throughout the year students will constantly need to be reminded that they are “yet” learners.  They are able to master the skill and build upon that further.

Growth Mindset and Grading

For students grades can be a stressful aspect of their schooling.  Not only do they feel pressure to get good grades on their own, but they also get pressure from their parents.  It is important for them to know that they are not defined by a number.  Just because they may get a bad grade or not understand a skill, it does not mean that they will forever be stuck there.  Once students are used to having a growth mindset they will not be preoccupied with their grades.  They will start to value their need to continue learning over grades.

Improperly Promoted Growth Mindset? What to do?

Growth mindset is fairly new to me, so of course there will be bumps in the road.  There is no set guidelines and there is not going to be someone walking me step by step throughout this process.  There will be times when I will fall back on my fixed mindset habits.  The way I can I prevent or to fix it is to realize when it’s happening.  When I do fall back to the fixed mindset, I can talk it out. Tell myself that it is just a setback and I can learn from it and let this become my mantra.  When students do the same, have a conversation with them.  Talk it out and work through the obstacle.  Just like with growth mindset, just because I do not succeed does not mean I am a failure in promoting a growth mindset in my classroom.  With everything we try to do in life, it will take time.

Growth Mindset and Innovation Plan

The growth mindset will have a great influence/impact on my innovation plan.  Having my students go home and watch instructional videos without having me in the forefront will be a challenge for them.  It will be a challenge because when they watch the video they may not understand the skill and feel inadequate when they come to the class the next day.  Once they realize that it’s okay for them not to fully comprehend it the  first time and that no one will negatively judge them about it, they will feel more comfortable.  Their mindset will also start to change and they will put their full effort when they have online learning in the classroom.  They will care more about the learning and the journey than getting a good grade or a perfect score.  Ultimately that is what I want my students to achieve from this mentality, the growth mindset.  They are more than a number or percentage on paper.  They are a growing little humans that need our support, encouragement, and challenges.


        Dweck, C., & T. (2014, October 09). Carol Dweck, “Developing a Growth Mindset”

Retrieved December 16, 2016, from

      Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random


Understanding by Design (UbD)-Backward design

Understanding by Design (UbD) backwards design according to Wiggins and McTighe (2005) “… involves thinking a great deal, first, about the specific learnings sought, and the evidence of such learnings, before thinking about what we, as the teacher, will do or provide in teaching and learning activities.” (14)

This past week I was asked to look at the UbD Design, backward design.  At first I felt comfortable using the model since I had been exposed to it previously in my school district.  In my district, this design is used to help teachers create their lesson plans for the upcoming units, which range  from a week to months at a time.  When I started to write my UbD design I had the mentality , that I was writing it for one unit, but I soon realized that was not what was being asked.  I later realized I had to design a UbD for larger units.  I had to combine two units together to make sure that my UbD design fit over  a long period of time.  So I took my Operation units (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) and combined them together.  Once put together it would take about 3 months to teach.  With that in mind developing my UbD design was more difficult than i originally thought.    The following  UbD design is one that I developed for a 4th grade math unit on the four basic math operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division).

Stage 1- Desired Results

Establish Goals:

Students will…

  • Analyze different digital media to create tutorial videos.
  • Add and subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place.
  • Determine products of a number using properties of operations and place value understanding.
  • Represent the product of 2 two-digit numbers.
  • Multiply up to four-digit number by a one-digit number.
  • Represent the quotient of up to four-digit whole number divided by a one-digit whole number.
  • Interpret remainders.
  • Utilize different strategies to solve real world math problems.
  • Analyze, evaluate and solve one to two step math word problems.
  • Be exposed to different strategies they can use to solve math word problems.
Students will understand that…

  • Using different strategies will help them solve math word problems.
  • Using digital media will help them grow as a learner.
  • Solving math word problems may involve more than one operation.
Essential Questions:

  • How do we analyze word problems to choose the correct math operation(s)?
  • How can we use the created videos to help further student’s learning?
  • How can using different strategies can help solve math word problems?
  • How do all four basic mathematical operations connect?
Students will know…

  • How to solve multi step math word problems using multiple operations.
  • How to analyze a word problem and choose the correct math operation(s) to solve.
Students will be able to…

  • Create tutorial videos.
  • To make connections between the four different math operations.
  • To create a plan for their own learning.

Stage 2- Assessment Evidence

Performance Tasks:

  • Flipped Classroom instructional videos
  • Student-created tutorials
  • STAAR like worksheets
Other Evidence:

  • Quizizzes
  • Small group notebook
  • Providing peer feedback
  • SeeSaw Journal
  • Peer work
  • Exit tickets

Stage 3- Learning Plan

Learning Activities:

1.     Teacher will have students activate prior knowledge of the four basic math operations. W

2.     Students will have a have a small quiz on their prior knowledge. (From this data the teacher will be able to make small groups, prepare for misconceptions for new knowledge.) W, T

3.     Students will be given the url for the instructional videos. (Students will be introduced to each operation one at a time.) W

4.     When student come in the classroom after watching the instructional videos, they will be completing a group project. (Multiday) H

5.     Students will continuously work on math word problems. E

6.     Students will be asked to make short videos using different software. W,H

7.     Students will be completing independent work, peer work and small group instruction on the various math operations. E

8.     Students will design a plan to create their tutorial videos. E, O

9.     Students will collect data based on their completed work in order to tailor their learning. (What they are not mastering? What can they do to master the skill?) E, T, O

10.  Teacher will work with students in small group to fix any misconceptions they may have. R, T

11.  Students will get with a partner to provide feedback on their tutorial videos. R, E

12.  Students will be uploading their videos to SeeSaw. O

W = Help the students know Where the unit is going and What is expected? Help the teacher know Where the students are coming from (prior knowledge, interests)?
H = Hook all students and Hold their interest?
E = Equip students, help them Experience the key ideas and Explore the issues?
R = Provide opportunities to Rethink and Revise their understandings and work?
E = Allow students to Evaluate their work and its implications?
T = Be Tailored (personalized) to the different needs, interests, and abilities of learners?
O = Be Organized to maximize initial and sustained engagement as well as effective learning?

UbD and 3 column table (BHAG)

I found both of these lesson plan models very difficult.  Of the two, the UbD was easier to work with.  Since I had been exposed to this design in the past,  I felt more comfortable using this method..  I believe that UbD design would be more beneficial for lesson plans for smaller period units.  The 3 column table is more suited for long term goals, such as semester term goals.  

I can see myself using both templates for my innovation plan even though the 3 column table is by far more challenging for me.  The way I would use the 3 column table would be to plan the year long goal for my students. This is what I would  show my administrators at the beginning of the year.  The UbD design would be more efficient for my unit lesson plans.  They would be about the skills that I need to teach, what my instruction is going to be, and what activities my students will partake on.




         Fink, L. D. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning. Retrieved from


          Wiggins, G., & Mctighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design, expanded 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.